あげる (ageru) Basic Japanese Grammar (2)

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Ageru-(2) grammar

㊦ あげる (2) Auxiliary Verb (Group 2)

To see あげる ageru grammar as a verb, see this article -> あげる (ageru) Basic Japanese Grammar (1)

Someone gives some action as a favour to a person who is not a member of the giver’s in group but whose status is about equal of the giver.

Meaning: Do something for someone; do someone a favour by doing something

Key Sentences

a. 私は信男さんにネクタイを買ってあげた・あげました
Watashi wa nobuo-san ni nekutai o katte agemashita
I bough a tie for Nobuo.

b. 僕は春子さんを慰めてあげたあげました
Boku wa Haruko-san o nagusamete ageta / agemashita.
I consoled Haruko.

Formation

Vてあげる
話してあげるtalk for someone’s sake
食べてあげるeat for someone’s sake

Example:

君はお母さんに何をしてあげましたか。
Kimi wa okaasan ni nani o shite agemashita ka.
What did you do for for your mother?

田中さんはスミスさんに本を貸してあげた
Tanaka-san wa sumisu-san ni hon o kashiteageta.
Mr. Tanaka lent a book to Mr. Smith.

Notes

1). あげる is used as an auxiliary verb with the て form of verbs. The meaning of Verb-てあげる is ‘do something for someone’ or ‘do someone a favour by doing something’. The restriction which applies to あげる1 also applies to あげる2. Namely, sentences with Verb-てあげる are descriptions from the viewpoint of the benefactor (i.e., the person in subject position); therefore, the indirect object must not be the first person or a person the speaker empathizes with. (See あげる (ageru) Basic Japanese Grammar (1)) Thus, (1a) and (1b) are ungrammatical.

1a. *花子は私に日本語を教えてあげた
Hanako wa watashi ni nihongo o oshieteageta.
Hanako taught me Japanese.

1b. *メアリーは私のむすめにペンを買ってあげた
Mearii wa watashi no musume ni pen o katteageta.
Mary bought a pen for my daughter.

2) The grammatical sentences for (1a) and (1b) are (2a) and (2b), respectively by using くれる kureru.

2a. 花子は私に日本語を教えてくれた。
Hanako wa watashi ni nihongo o oshietekureta.
Hanako taught me Japanese.

2b. メアリーは私のむすめにペンを買ってくれた。
Mearii wa watashi no musume ni pen o kattekureta.
Mary bought a pen for my daughter.

3). As in key sentences (B), if the person receiving the benefit is the direct object of the sentence, the indirect object is omitted. Therefore, (3a) and (3b) are ungrammatical.

3a. *僕は春子さんに春子さんをなぐさめてあげた
Boku wa harukosan ni harukosan o nagusameteageta.

3b. *僕は春子さんになぐさめてあげた
Boku wa harukosan ni nagusameteageta.

When the main verb is intransitive, あげる is not used along with に.

The following sentence is ungrammatical:

4. 私たちはジョンに働いてあげた
Watashitachi wa jon ni hataraiteageta.
We worked for John.

In this case, の為に no tame ni ‘for the sake of’ is used, as in (5)

5. 私たちはジョンのために働いた。
Watashitachi wa jon no tame ni hataraita.
We worked for John’s sake.

4). The humble polite version of Verb-てあげる is Verb-てさしあげる. Example:

私は先生にピアノをひいてさしあげました。
Watashi wa sensei ni piano o hiitesashiagemashita.
I played the piano for my teacher.

The degree of politeness expressed in Verb-てさしあげる is higher than that of Verb-てくださる and Verb-ていただく, which are the polite versions of Verb-てくれる and Verb-てもらう, respectively.

When the benefactor is in a higher position than the recipient or is of equal status and his relationship to the recipient is close, Verb-てやる is used instead of Verb-てあげる. Examples:

  1. 私は妹にレコードを買ってやった。
    Watashi wa imouto ni rekoodo o katteyatta.
    I bought my little sister a record.
  2. じゅんは猫に魚を焼いてやった。
    Jun wa neko ni sakana o yaite yatta.
    Jun roasted fish for his cat.
  3. [John is the speaker’s close friend]
    私はジョンにラジオを貸してやりました。
    Watashi wa Jon ni rajio o kashite yarimashita.
    I lent John my radio.

Source: Basic Japanese Grammar, page 65.

 

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