日本語文型辞典 English Edition
When do you use a dictionary? Is it when you don’t know which kanji to use, or when you come across a noun or a verb you don’t know the meaning of? For things like kanji and word meaning, a Japanese language dictionary is very useful. If you want to know the difference between words like うっかり and つい, a thesaurus will help. However, there are times when no conventional dictionary will give you the answer you are looking for. For example, you may want to know exactly what the word せっかく means when it is used in the pattern せっかく・・・からには, as opposed to the pattern せっかく・・・けれども. Or you may wonder what sort of thinking lies behind the use of expression like ・・・にしてからが and ・・・にしたところで, or about the meaning that expression like ・・・ともかぎらない, わけではない, and ・・・にちがいない add to the sentences in which they are used. These questions are not dealt with adequately in conventional dictionaries.
The dictionary is a handbook that looks at grammar patterns in terms of their meaning, function, and usage in relation to sentences or clauses. It can also describes how these patterns are used in different situations and contexts. When you want to look up expression that you can’t find in conventional dictionaries, or gain information that isn’t available in those dictionaries, this handbook will be a powerful resource.
This handbook contains 3,000 entries, including all of the grammar patterns found in the Chuujookyuu Nihongo Kyookasho Bunkei Sakuin (eds. Yuriko Sunakawa et al.) and Bunpootekina Kinoogo no Tagui, which part of the test content specification for Levels 1 and 2 of the Japanese Language Proficiency Test (Japan Foundation /Association of International Education, Japan). It also includes some grammar patterns gathered from newspaper, magazines, novels, movie scripts, and other sources. It is a comprehensive book at the intermediate level and above often find to be challenging.
In this handbook we have tried to explain grammar patterns in clear and concise Japanese, so that the learners of Japanese as a foreign or second language will find them easy to understand. We have also done the following things.
- Provided as many illustrative example as possible, in order for the readers to be able to grasp how each pattern is used.
- Avoided using kanji other than Jooyoo Kanji (Kanji for Common Use) and provided a pronunciation guide for kanji used in examples.
- Provided examples of “incorrect usage” when appropriate, in order to illustrate common mistakes that learners should take care to avoid.
- Included as much information as possible with respect to the structure of each pattern, situation in which it is actually used, differences from similar expression and other points useful for Japanese language learning.
- Made a special effort to deal with expression typical of spoken language, such as っけ in なんて言ったけ and できっこない.
- To facilitate easy look-up of words and expression, we have also provided three kinds of indexes: a Japanese phonetic syllabary index (50-on index), a reverse order index of meaning and function groups.
It has been eight years since the plan for this handbook has conceived. Sin it was written and edited by a team with whimsical diverse interest, it would not have been possible to complete it without the support and encouragement of many people. Special thanks go to Toshihiro Fukunishi of Kuroshio Publishers, who worked overtime and gave up his days off to ensure that this handbook was published. We also grateful to Yumiko Sando and Yoko Sato for all their help. Furthermore, we are indebted to Jiro Abe and the others who collaborated with the editing, and we are also grateful to many friends and colleagues for their feedback and advice.
We sincerely hope that this handbook will be a useful resource for those who are learning Japanese as a foreign or second language, for Japanese teachers, and for others who are interested in the use of Japanese.