Japanese Grammar: 上がる (agaru)

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上がる

Vstem-あがる <upward direction>

  • 彼は立ち上がってあたりを見回した。
    kare wa tachiagatte atari o mimawashita.
    He stood up and looked around.
  • 妹は帰ってくるなり階段を一気にかけ上がって、自分の部屋に飛び込んだ。
    imouto wa kaettekurunari kaidan o ikki ni kakeagatte, jibun no heya ni tobikonda.
    As soon as my sister came home, she ran upstairs and jumped through the doorway into her room.
  • 彼女はライバルを押しのけて、スターの座にのしあがった。
    kanojo wa raibaru o oshinokete, sutaa no za ni noshiagatta.
    She pushed her rivals away and rose to become a star.
  • 政治学の先生はひたいがはげ上がっている。
    seijigaku no sensei wa hitai ga hageagatteiru.
    Our political science teacher has a receding hairline.
  • 冬休みにみんなで温泉に行こうという計画が持ち上がった。
    fuyuyasumi ni minna de onsen ni ikou to iu keikaku ga mochiagatta.
    We had a plan to go all together to a hot spring in winter vacation.
  • ツアーの申し込み人数が少なすぎるので、家族連れで参加できることにしたら、人数が倍以上にふくれ上がって旅行会社は困っている。
    tsuaa no moushikomi nizuu ga sukunasugiru no de, kazoku dzurede sanka dekiru koto ni shitara, ninzuu ga baiijou ni fukureagatte ryokou kaisha wa komatteiru.
    After initially receiving too few application, the travel agency now has problems with twice as many application as they expected, since they allowed people to apply for thr tour with their families.
  • 彼女はボーイフレンドプロポーズされてすっかり舞い上がっている。
    kanojo wa booifurendo puropoozusarete sukkari mai agatteiru.
    She was proposed to by her boyfriend, so she is totally excited.
  • 自分がリーダーになればみんなついているに決まっているだって?おもいあがるのもいい加減にしろ。
    jibun ga riidaa ni nareba minna tsuiteiru ni kimatteiru date? Omoiagaru no mo ii kagen ni shiro.
    Are you saying everyone will surely follow you if you become a leader? Stop being conceited.

When あがる is appended to a verb stem, it indicates an action/movement or a state that is going in upward direction. (5)-(8) are figurative expression with the meaning of “in an upward direction”

 

Vstem-あがる <extreme degree>

  1. 長い間雨が降らないので、湖も干上がってしまった。
    nagai aida ame ga furanai no de, mizuumi mo hiagatte shimatta.
    Since it has not rained for a long time, the lake has dried up.
  2. 店員は男にピストルを突き付けられてふるえ上がった。
    ten’in wa otoko ni pisutoru o tsukitsukerarete furueagatta.
    The salesclerk was terrified when a pistol was pointed at him by a man.
  3. ふだんほとんど叱らない先生をバカにしていた生徒は、タバコを吸っているのを見つかって大声でどなりつけられ、縮み上がっていた。
    fudan hotondo shikaranai sensei o baka ni shiteita seito wa, tabako o sutteiru no o mitsukatte oogoe de donaritsukerare, chidimiagatteita.
    The student, who had made fun of the teacher that hardly ever scolds anyone, shrank away when he was found smoking and yelled at by that teacher.
  4. その俳優は、たいして演技もうまくないのに周りの人たちにおだてられて、自分は誰よりも才能があるんだとのぼせ上がっている。
    sono haiyuu wa, taishite, engi mo umakunai no ni mawari no hitotachi ni odaterarete, jibun wa dare yori mo sainou ga arunda to noboseagatteiru.
    Even tough his acting is not very good, that actor is overconfident and believes that he is more talented than anyone else, due to flattering by people around him.

When あがる is joined to a verb stem (Vstem), it expresses a situation that progress to an extreme degree. It can be used only with a limited number of verbs.

 

Vstem-あがる <accomplishment>

  1. パンがおいしそうに焼きあがった。
    pan ga oishi sou ni yakiagatta.
    The bread turned out delicious.
  2. みんなの意見を取り入れて、とても満足のいく旅行プランができあがった。
    minna no iken o toriirete, totemo manzoku no iku ryokou puran ga dekiagatta.
    By taking into account everyone’s opinions, a very satisfying tour plan was arranged.
  3. スパゲッティがゆであがったら、すばやくソースにからめます。
    supagetti ga yudeagattara, subayaku soosu ni karamemasu.
    When the spaghetti is finished cooking, put the sauce on it quickly.
  4. 注文していた年賀状が刷り上がってきた。
    chuumonshiteita nengajou ga suriagattekita.
    The New Year’s card that I ordered were printed.

In these cases, あがる is appended to a verb stem and expresses that an action is completed. It is usually appended to transitive verb that involve making things, such as 編む amu, 練る neru, 刷る suru. The intransitive verb できる is an exception.

 

Source: A Handbook of Japanese Grammar Patterns for Teachers and Learners, page. 4