List of Japanese Particles

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Japanese particles are small words that indicate relations of words within a sentence. They follow other words such as nouns, verbs, adjectives are parts of a sentence. Some but not all can be compared to prepositions in English. The Japanese language uses a total of 188 particles.

List of 188 Japanese particles

NoParticleMeaning / usage
1は (wa)Indicantes the topic of a sentence
2か (ka)At the end of a sentence indicating a question
3が (ga)Indicates the subject of a sentence
4に (ni)Indicates a location
5の (no)Indicates possession
6は (wa)Indicates a contrast between 2 items
7に (ni)Indicates time or frequency
8へ (e)Indicates direction
9を (wo/o)Indicates the direct object of a verb
10と (to)Used to connect and list up multiple items
11や (ya)Used to connect and partially list up multiple items
12など (nado)Used with や (ya) to partially list up multiple items
13も (mo)means “too”, “either”, “also”
14も (mo)both…and…, neither…nor…
15に (ni)Indicates the indirect object of a verb
16に (ni)Indicates the surface of a object where some action takes place
17で (de)Indicates the location of an action
18と (to)Together with
19の (no)Indicates an apposition
20から (kara)Indicates a starting point in time or place
21より (yori)Indicates a starting point in time or place but more formal than kara (20)
22まで (made)Indicates a limit on time, space or quantity
23くらい (kurai)Indicates an approximate amount
24ほど (hodo)Indicates an approximate amount
25ばかり(bakari)Indicates an approximate amount
26で (de)Indicates a means or material
27か (ka)Indicates a choice or alternative
28を (wo/o)Indicates a point of departure
29を (wo/o)Indicates a route of a movement/motion
30に (ni)Indicates a point of arrival
31に (ni)Indicates an entering motion
32に (ni)Used together with a verb to express a purpose
33と (to)Used when quoting someone
34と いう (to iu)Indicates the name of something
35とか (toka)“something like”
36で (de)Indicates a limit or scope
37と (to)Indicates a comparison
38より (yori)Indicates a comparison
39より (yori)Indicates superlative
40くらい (kurai)Indicates a comparison
41ほど (hodo)Indicates a comparison in a negative sentence
42か (ka)someone, something
43も (mo)“nothing”, nobody”, nowhere” if used with an interrogative word
44に (ni)Used with a verb to indicate a change or choice
45をする (wo/o suru)Expresses an occupation or position
46でも (demo)Indicates emphasis
47でも (demo)Together with an interrogative word it means “anything”, “anyone”, any time”
48で (de)Indicates a cause or a reason
49から (kara)Indicates a source such as a giver, a cause or material
50に (ni)Indicates a person who gives something or who provides a service
51は (wa) + が (ga)Indicates the relation between an object / subjects and a verb or adjective
52が (ga)Connects two sentences with the meaning “but…”
53を (wo/o)Used with an verb expressing emotions, it indicates the cause of this emotion
54で (de)Indicates a state / condition of something
55で (de)Limits numbers
56だけ (dake)Indicates a limit on things or amounts
57だけ (dake)Indicates a limit on an action or state
58で (de)Indicates the time of completion or expiration of something
59でも (demo)Following a noun, means “or something like this”
60も (mo)Emphasizes in a positive or negative way
61でも (demo)Indicates two or more items as an example of a larger list
62ばかり (bakari)Indicates that an item, state or action is a single one
63ばかり (bakari)Indicates an action was just completed
64ところ (tokoro)Indicates that an action takes place, just took place or is about to take place
65が (ga)Indicates the subject of subordinate clause when it is different from the subject of the main clause
66から (kara)conjunction meaning “after” or “since”
67ながら (nagara)Indicates that an action is happening simultaneously
68が (ga)Indicates the subject of a relative clause
69の (no)Indicates the subject of a relative clause
70から (kara)Used as a conjunction and indicates a cause or reason
71ので (node)Indicates a strong reason
72の (no)Indicates a modified pronoun
73の (no)Used to nominalize verbs & sentences
74なら (nara)Used as a conjunction and indicates a supposition or condition
75なら (nara)Indicates a topics and is used as an alternative to wa (No.1)
76と (to)Indicates a condition that results in an inevitable outcome
77ば (ba)Used as a conjunction to express a probable results
78ばいい (ba)“all you have to do…”
79ば (ba)Used to enumerate two or more actions or states
80たら (tara)Used as a conjunction, indicates a supposition or condition
81たら (tara)Used as a conjunction to indicate that one action takes place before the action described in the main sentence
82ところ (tokoro)Used as a conjunction to indicate a condition that brings about a discovery
83ても (temo)a conjunction meaning “even if”
84ても (temo)Used with a set of contrasting verbs and adjectives
85ても (temo)Together with an interrogative word it means “no matter what/where/who”
86ては (tewa)Indicates a condition which will bring a negative conclusion
87のみ (nomi)Indicates a limit (similar to だけ dake)
88まで (made)“even”, used to emphasize
89さえ (sae)“even”, used to emphasize
90さえ (sae)“if only” or “as long as”
91のに (noni)“although”, “in spite of the fact that”
92ながら (nagara)“although”, “though”, “but”
93とか (toka)Indicates that a list of two ore more things or actions is not exhaustive
94たり (tari)List of two or more actions in no particular sequence
95たり (tari)Indicates actions or states that alternate
96のに (noni)Indicates a purpose or function
97のです (no desu)Asks for an explanation or reason
98きり (kiri)Indicates a limit to an amount
99きり (kiri)Indicates the last time a certain incident occured
100とも (tomo)Used with numbers and counters to mean “both” or “all”
101ながら (nagara)Used with numbers and counters to mean “both” or “all”
102しか (shika)Used with a negative verb to indicate limits on conditions or quantities meaning “only”
103しかない (shika nai)used with a verb meaning “to have no choice but to”
104し (shi)Used as a conjunction, indicating two or more actions or states
105し (shi)Used as a conjunction indicating a reason
106とも (tomo)Indicates inclusion
107に (ni)Indicates the one acting or the one acted upon
108か (ka)Indicates uncertainty about something
109か (ka)Indicates uncertainty about a state or reason
110だの (dano) Indicates two or more items or actions of a longer list (similar to toka とか)
111だの (dano)Indicates a pair of opposite actions or states
112など (nado)“something to the effect”
113やら (yara)Indicates two or more items of a longer list
114やら (yara)Indicates uncertainty
115ても (temo)Indicates an approximate limit with the meaning of “at the most”
116とも (tomo)Indicates an approximate maximum or minimum
117は (wa)Indicates that a number is the higher or lowest limit
118と (to)Emphasizes a number in a negative sentence
119など (nado)Indicates examples
120くらい (kurai)Expresses an extent of an action or condition similar to ぐらい gurai
121ほど (hodo)Indicates the extend of an action or condition
122 ほど (hodo)“the more… the more…”
123だけ (dake)“as… as…”
124だけ (dake)“the more… the more…”
125と (to)“about to do something”, “trying to do something”
126と (to)“even if…”, “whether… or not”
127なり (nari)“either…”, “whether…or”
128なり (nari)“anything”, “anyone”, “any time”
129こそ (koso)Emphasizes the word preceding it
130こそ (koso)Emphasizes a reason or a cause
131ては (tewa)Expresses repetition of an action
132に (ni)Joins two or more nouns to indicate a list of items
133に (ni)Connects two or more items to indicate a matching or a contrast
134にしては (ni shite wa)Indicates a generally agreed upon standard
135にとって (ni totte)Indicates an effect or value of a person or thing
136について (ni tsuite)“about”, “concerning” something or someone
137とも…とも (tomo… tomo)“can’t say whether… or…”
138が (ga)“even if”, “whether… or not”
139は (wa)Emphasizes contrasting elements
140として (toshite)Indicates status, capacity or function
141として (toshite)Provides emphasis in a negative sentence
142ばかりでなく(bakari de naku)“not only… but also”
143だけ (dake) used to express “not only…but also”
144のみ (nomi)used to express “not only…but also”
145なり (nari)“as soon as”
146がはやいか (ga hayai ka)“as soon as”
147やいなや (ya ina ya)“as soon as”
148かないうちに (ka nai uchi ni)“no sooner had”, “hardly had”
149ばかり (bakari)Indicates the only action left to do
150ばかりに (bakari ni)Emphasizes a reason or cause
151すら (sura)Emphasizes in the meaning of “even”
152など (nado)Expresses a humble attitude towards an item
153とも (tomo)“no matter what”, “even if”
154ともあろうひと (tomo aroo hito)To express that someone did something not to be expected
155どころか (dokoro ka)“far from”, “not to mention”
156だけに (dake ni)Indicates a cause or reason
157までもない (made mo nai)“there is no need to…”
158ものの (mono no)“but” or “although”
159ところで (tokoro de)“even if”
160けれども (keredomo)Connects 2 sentences meaning “but” or “although”
161けれども (keredomo)Indicates a preliminary remark
162が (ga)Used to soften a statement or refusal
163けれども (keredomo)Indicates a desire
164ね (ne)At the end of a sentence to confirm a statement
165ね (ne)At the end of a sentence to soften a request or suggestion
166ね (ne)At the end of a sentence to indicate a reason or cause
167ねえ (nee)At the end of a sentence to indicate emotion
168よ (yo)At the end of a sentence to state a strong conviction
169よ (yo)At the end of a sentence to articulate a request or suggestion
170かしら (kashira)At the end of a sentence to express uncertainty, a request or a question and mainly used by women
171かな (kana)At the end of a sentence to express uncertainty, a request or a question and mainly used by men
172な (na)At the end of a sentence and used by men to confirm a statement
173な (na)At the end of a sentence to express a prohibition, used by men
174なあ (naa)At the end of a sentence to express emotion, used by men
175なあ (naa)At the end of a sentence to express a desire
176の (no)At the end of a sentence to express a question or soften a command, used by women
177わ (wa)At the end of a sentence to soften a statement, used by women
178さ (sa)At the end of a sentence to indicate slight emphasis, used by men
179こと (koto)At the end of a sentence to indicate emotion, used by women
180こと (koto)At the end of a sentence to express a suggestion or invitation, used by women
181もの (mono)At the end of a sentence to express a reason or excuse
182とも (tomo)At the end of a sentence to express an assertion
183ものか (monoka)At the end of a sentence to express a negative determination, used by men
184や (ya)At the end of a sentence to soften a statement, request or suggestion, used by men
185たら (tara)At the end of a sentence to indicate a suggestion or proposal
186やら (yara)At the end of a sentence to indicate a rhetorical question with a negative implication
187ぜ (ze)At the end of a sentence to add for to sentence, used by men
188ぞ (zo)At the end of a sentence to add force to a sentence or to express a question to oneself
Keywords
  • japanese particles list